(National Cultural History Museum, Pretoria)
These unusual copper objects date to the last 250 years and are unique to the Northern Province. Musuku were owned by important Venda chiefs and a few specialist metal workers. Made from a mould in the ground, they stand from 10 to 20cm tall, and most are filled with sand. They usually have 3 to 4 rows with 5 to 10 studs each. Solid Musuku may have been trade ingots, but the others served ceremonial functions. These puzzling objects may have represented the euphorbia cactus planted on important graves.